How To Help Your Bunions If You Don’t Want Surgery

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A top down view of a pair of feet with the toes splayed out surrounded by foot exercise gear, toe spacers, and foot shaped barefoot shoes

Written in collaboration with Andy Bryant, Podiatrist.

Bunions can be a real nuisance. But there’s quite a lot that can be done about them! Whether it’s the pain, the dysfunction, or the look of the bunion that is bothering you, there are practical steps to improve the condition without the aid of surgery.

We’re talking about more than ice & rest here. But we’re also not making empty promises of miraculous cures. This is a podiatrist’s guide to actually improving your bunions by getting at the underlying issues. 

Got bunion pain? Let’s take a dive.

What Is A Bunion?

image of two feet showing What is a bunion - one has the mtp joint migrating outward, the other is a straight line from the 1st metatarsal through the big toe

Contrary to popular belief, a bunion is not a growth on the outside of your toe joint. A bunion (aka hallux valgus) is actually a misalignment of the foot. The joint at the base of the big toe – or sometimes little toe – moves away from the foot, causing the head of the bone to protrude out to the side and the toes to angle inward. 

The more those joints move out of alignment, the more the head of the bone protrudes – giving your foot that classic bunion shape. No growth, just protruding bone. Ouch!

 A foot with a bunion is widest at the base of the toes. By contrast, a natural foot shape is widest at the tips of the toes. 

So how does one get a bunion to begin with?

What Causes a Bunion?

The root cause of bunions is multifactorial.  This means there are likely multiple overlapping reasons you have a bunion

An infographic showing that the cause of bunions is multifactoral and involves genetics, ill fitting shoes, excessive sitting, and poor gait.

Do Genetics Cause Bunions?

Traditionally bunions have been blamed entirely on genetics, but we’re starting to see that the environment our feet are in (and the body they’re attached to!) has a large effect on the formation of bunions.

Even still, there are two genetic factors worth noting that Dr. Andy sees implicated in the formation of bunions.

  1. A wide intermetatarsal angle – This is a foot type you can be born with where there’s a wider than usual angle between the 1st and 2nd bones of the foot. Bunions are more common in those with a wide angle and less in those with the bones closer to parallel.
  2. Joint flexibility – You are more likely to have a bunion if you have very flexible joints, both locally at the foot and in general throughout the body (hypermobility).  Women tend to have more joint flexibility than men, which is one possible reason bunions are more common in women than men. 

But these factors do not dictate whether or not you will have bunions! Many people who are genetically predisposed never have bunions, and many people who aren’t predisposed do have bunions. You can’t control your genetics, but you can control your environment.

Does Lifestyle Cause Bunions?

Despite the fact that there are genetic factors that can predispose you to bunions, the reality is our lifestyle choices have a tremendous impact on our foot health. 

Factors such as how strong and dynamic our core is, how multi-dimensional our movement patterns are, and – perhaps most importantly – the shoes we wear daily, can all influence whether or not we develop bunions. 

Does Footwear Cause Bunions?

If you live in a shoe-wearing culture you likely have had your feet housed in shoes for most of your life. And unfortunately most shoes today are widest at the ball of the foot and then taper toward the toes – the exact shape of a foot with a bunion! So is it all that surprising that so many of our feet match the shape of the shoes we wear every day? 

We know that bodies can be morphed and changed by external stimulus – think foot binding, ear gauges, neck rings, and corsets. Combine a foot corset (aka restrictive shoe) for hours on end with a genetic predisposition for bunions, and a bunion may very well be the result.

A graphic showing the different ways we modify our bodies by binding or stretching it - via ear gauges, neck rings, corsets, and foot binding

And because we rarely see bunions in populations that don’t wear shoes, it makes sense to consider our footwear. Pointy fashion shoes might be another reason we see bunions more frequently in women than men.

Will Barefoot Shoes Fix My Bunions?

So if I stop wearing pointy-toed shoes and start wearing foot-shaped shoes, my bunions will go away? Not exactly! Barefoot shoes have a natural foot shape to them that doesn’t squish the toes, and Andy has seen numerous cases of bunions improving over time simply by switching to this type of footwear. But unfortunately “fixing” a bunion is not often so straightforward. 

When the big or little toe joint changes its position to form a bunion, the muscles, tendons and ligaments in the area also change.  They might get tighter, weaker, stronger, or looser. So addressing these soft tissue changes alongside better footwear and lifestyle choices is a more holistic approach to improving your bunions.

What To Do About Your Bunion

As a podiatrist, Andy works with people affected by bunions everyday. And he has seen many of them reduce their pain, restore function, and even sometimes completely reverse the bunion (both in the big and little toe) through the steps laid out below. The degree to which you can improve your bunion varies from person to person, but if you’d like to avoid surgery this is where you start (and we’d recommend starting sooner rather than later).

Please note that surgery is always an option – but let it be the last option. Bunion surgery is a big deal, and giving rehabilitation a proper chance can bring so much relief that you might be able to completely avoid surgery. If you do end up with bunion surgery you will still benefit from the recommendations here as you will have healthier feet going in and better results coming out. 

Here is how Dr. Andy treats patients with bunions:

Foot Shaped Footwear

While we’ve already established that footwear is not the end-all-be-all for bunions, it cannot be understated that shoes must be part of the discussion. If you want to give your foot a chance to realign itself (and you wear shoes for long periods of time), those shoes need to have space for the big toe to lay straight.  

All the exercises and support in the world won’t be enough if we put a foot with a bunion back into a pointy, tapered shoe all day everyday. So step 1 is to wear anatomically shaped shoes.

But it’s common for people with bunions to have limited range of motion in their big toe – or little toe – , which can make it difficult to wear flexible barefoot shoes. You don’t want to aggravate your already painful feet, so you may want to start with a wide toe box shoe that has some cushion and support while you work on your foot function (as laid out in this article).

Over time you may be able to wear more minimal shoes as you regain function in your feet! Here are some guides to shoe buying to help get you started:

a grid of right shoes that have an anatomical foot shape next to a right foot that has a bunion with the text "Buying Shoes When You Have Bunions, by Anya's Reviews" written over it
Learn more about our tips for shoe shopping with bunions here!

It’s worth noting that at first “foot-shaped” shoes might have more space than you can fill, because bunions cause your toes to compress together. So consider your new pair of shoes as aspirational – you need to stop squishing your feet and provide an opportunity for your toes to spread out. Over time your toes likely will start filling up the shoe, especially if you use toe spacers with them.

Toe Spacers

Another low hanging fruit when it comes to improving bunions is toe spacers. Toe spacers can help realign the foot and are easy to add to your life. They’re the opposite of squishy footwear – instead of compressing your toes together, toe spacers coax them apart.

A picture of a pair of feet with hallux valgus, or bunions, with one wearing Correct Toes toe spacers and the other not to show how the spacers put your foot into alignment

There are many different types of toe spacers. We like Correct Toes best because they are adjustable, come in 4 sizes for different shaped feet, and you can wear them all day – even inside shoes and while exercising.

There are also many one-size-fits-all spacers available, such as these from The Toe Spacer. But those tend to spread the toes more aggressively and are not as easily worn all day as Correct Toes. They work best for average sized feet, and for shorter periods of time. The upside is that these spacers are fairly cheap, so might be a more accessible starting point.

If your bunions are severe enough that these full foot spacers are hard to tolerate, a single spacer can be used between the 1st and 2nd toes. You can also modify the above spacers to fit your foot by cutting portions off.

Read more on the benefits of toe spacers in this article.

Mobilize The Toes & Foot

Now is where you have to put in a little elbow grease, because mobility in the joints is necessary if you want to see a change in your foot alignment. Not only will it improve the bunion, but it also is necessary for your foot to do its job of absorbing impact and propelling you forward (and improving this function will help you be more comfortable barefoot or in barefoot shoes). 

In particular, the big toe joint needs 60-70 degrees of bend to function properly. Bunions are often stiff and that amount of flexion might be really difficult! Here are some ways you can improve the mobility of your foot.

foot mobilizing exercises to realign the foot and improve your bunions
  • Self massage – This simple technique is surprisingly effective. 
  • Rolling over a ball – You can apply pressure under the bunion and the entire foot.
  • Wearing flexible shoes – So you get natural motion of your foot throughout your day (barefoot shoes are flexible!).
  • Walking barefoot on uneven surfaces.

Strengthen The Toes & Foot

Just as with any other muscle in the body, our foot muscles can be strengthened by loading them.

Mobility in the joints makes it possible for your bunion to move back into alignment, while strength in the joints helps increase the stability needed for them to stay in alignment. The fun thing about foot exercises is a lot of them both mobilize AND strengthen!

Here are a few of our favorites

A collage of different ways to strength your feet to improve your bunions
  • Toe yoga – keep the heel planted and isolate the movement of your big toe and outer toes by lifting them individually.
  • Toe grabs – place a hacky sack or towel, under the ball of your foot and pull it toward you and then away from you using only your toes (heel planted).
  • Toe squeezes – place a ball under your big toe and squeeze down on it for 15 seconds. Then lift the big toe away from the ball and hold for 15 seconds. You can do the same exercise with the the ball under your outer toes.

In general you want to do each exercise for 2-3 minutes on each side, or until fatigue/cramping. It’s very likely this will feel challenging at first, even frustrating! It’s ok if your movements are small at first – keep at it and watch your progress!

Read more about exercises to strengthen your feet here.

You can also improve the health of your feet by strengthening your ankles, calves, and shins. That means that being more physically active in almost any way will help your feet too.

Check out these free resources from Whealth for strengthening for feet, knees, hip, & more!

Strengthen The Ankle

When the ankle is strong and capable, it can relieve pressure on the foot and improve your overall gait. Because bunion development is related to foot dysfunction, better ankle health can improve your bunion. And ankle exercises are almost always foot strengthening exercises too!

Here are some easy ways to strengthen your ankles:

a collage of ways to strengthen your ankles to improve to help your bunions

Mobilize & Strengthen the Hips

The hip has a direct connection with the functioning of your foot – that is why people with stiff, immobile hips often have dysfunction in their feet. Living a movement rich and variable lifestyle is one of the best ways to keep your hips mobile and strong. Don’t underestimate how much it can impact your foot health!

Our favorite way to improve the strength and mobility of your hips is to sit on the floor. Ditching the chair and opting for squatting and as many different sitting positions as possible can work wonders. We also recommend taking movement breaks regularly to break up your sitting. If you want to more intentional hip work, CARS are a fabulous exercise!

A collage of four different ways to sit on the floor to improve your hip mobility and strength and your foot function

Bunion Before & After

You can see here examples of people who have changed their footwear and worked on their foot function to improve their bunion. These changes vary from person to person, and often take a long time to become evident. But we have seen over and over that change is possible! And even if your bunion doesn’t visibly change shape, natural foot care can prevent further damage and reduce pain & inflammation.

A bunion foot transformation using natural foot care, barefoot shoes, toe spacers, and foot exercises Justin
A bunion foot transformation using natural foot care, barefoot shoes, toe spacers, and foot exercises
A bunion foot transformation using natural foot care, barefoot shoes, toe spacers, and foot exercises Breath Performance Physio
A bunion foot transformation using natural foot care, barefoot shoes, toe spacers, and foot exercises Gait Happens
A bunion foot transformation using natural foot care, barefoot shoes, toe spacers, and foot exercises @rhapsodyrebecca
A bunion foot transformation using natural foot care, barefoot shoes, toe spacers, and foot exercises @cyantheta
A bunion foot transformation using natural foot care, barefoot shoes, toe spacers, and foot exercises Penny Petite


As you can see, a bunion is much more than a gift from your parents. Which means there are things you can do about it! The steps in this article can help you improve the symptoms of your bunion and prevent further damage. Even if you have no visible bunion, your feet and body will benefit from making some simple changes!

Want to work with someone to intentionally rehabilitate your bunion? The Gait Happens Fit Feet program is personalized to help you with your specific foot issues. They are leading experts on foot rehab and offer some of the best remote treatment you’ll find.

About Andy

A head shot of natural barefoot friendly podiatrist Andy Bryant

Andy Bryant has been a podiatrist in Melbourne, Australia for 22 years. After a long time of practicing “conventional” podiatry, Andy’s yoga practice intrigued him to consider the potential of the feet to be strengthened. His experiences soon filtered into his clinical practice where he empowers clients with education and tools to look after their feet more naturally.

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41 thoughts on “How To Help Your Bunions If You Don’t Want Surgery”

      1. My left foot has a developing bunion and lately it has started to hurt. I definitely think the square toe box is essential to restoring the joint. When I run or walk in my Hoka athletic shoes,, I feel almost pain free. Most other shoes give me trouble. I love these toe exercises. I plan to add these to my workout regimen! Thanks

  1. Hi Anya! I love all of your content. I was wondering if you had any tips for correcting a mild bunion while being heavily engaged in Latin dancing multiple times a week (and hence, wearing 3 inch heels that are right around the toes). I love that hobby but I also don’t want to make my bunions worse! Thanks for your input 🙂

    1. I personally would put those Correct Toes on as soon as the dancing shoes come off and do a little foot massage (Numbers 1 & 2 from this video of exercises is perfect). Otherwise I would just practice the bunion and foot care shown here as a part of your life when you’re not dancing.

    2. You’re probably going to have to say goodbye to the dancing shoes you currently use. Correct toes will absolutely help it, but it will take a while for your feet to adjust. I helped someone through that process and for a long time he had to wear the correct toes most of the time, because his pain would come back when he took them off. The other thing is the more your feet heal the more intolerable high heels become. You might be able to find high heels with a wide toe box, but yes something has to give.

  2. Please help! I have a tailor’s bunion on one foot, and even the widest foot shaped shoes I’ve got rub on the bunionette and it is always sore. I also need a lot of cushion because I’m heavy and tall. Altra Torin extra wide have enough cushion, but still rub. My feet are sort of square. Please advise

  3. Thanks for this article. I’m curious about yours and Andy’s opinions on the various bunion corrective devices that are out there…. The ones that use leverage to pull the big toe away from the rest of the foot.

    1. Hi Joanna! I’ve actually spoken to Andy about this (he’s the expert on foot rehab) and he doesn’t have a lot of experience with people using them so can’t say confidently whether or not they work well. But he’s a little hesitant because of how aggressive they are and prefers the holistic approach that allows the foot to progressively realign itself as it is ready. So he does not use them in his practice as of now.

  4. I have been switching to barefoot shoes for the last few years since my daughter, soon-to-be physical therapist, started sending me exercises for my bunion and referred me to your instagram. I have wide, flat, “Fred Flintstone” feet so was always advised toward arch supports, which never fit in my shoes anyway (too narrow). I’m an avid hiker, workout enthusiast, and yoga instructor/practitioner (in my 50’s and my back is better with barefoot shoes). So far, LEMs primal Zen and Telluride have been the best fit. I tried other Lems styles and only the widest fit works, but it’s like they were made for my feet. What would you recommend for a dressier boot and shoe? I tried a few with less luck…

  5. Hi Anya, thank you so much for explaining this. One question. I’ve just started with barefoot shoes and I have a bunion. The first time I walked in them for about 40 minutes, the buonion ached at the end of the day. Is that expected? Will it get better with time and excercises?
    Thanks 🙂

    1. That is very possible, because a bunion is often accompanied with stiffness and limited mobility in the big toe. So a barefoot shoe might be too much motion for it, because the soles are flexible and the foot has to bend a lot. An in-between shoe or a cushioned barefoot shoe might be a better place to start, and in the meantime you can use the exercises here to begin working on your big toe. It’s entirely possible to be able to progress to a full barefoot shoe with time! Here are my recommendations for a shoe with more cushion/thicker soles:

  6. What happens if you have bunions AND high arches? I keep reading that toe box shoes should not be worn with orthotics/inserts, but I wouldn’t dare to screw up my feet even more than I already have by taking out my inserts (used to be orthotics) without a podiatrist’s approval. I did that 13 yrs ago due to another medical condition and the bunions have returned.

    1. Hi Cheryl, There is a whole spectrum of natural footwear and if you are mostly looking to benefit from more toe space in your shoes and want to continue using your orthotics – you can absolutely do that!

  7. Just a quick question
    Are there “foot shaped” steel toe boots out there?
    I have been required to wear steel toe boots for the last 50 years
    One foot has a moderate bunion
    The other foot is fine. That said I would like to find a better fit for my feet.

  8. Hi I recently saw a podiatrist as I have mild bunions. He was not a fan of my barefoot shoes! He said I have low arches, gave me some arch support insoles (the insole just goes under the arch and tucks under the heel, it doesn’t go under the toes) and told me to wear wide shoes.

    I’ve been wearing the insoles in my FeelGrounds barefoot trainers for a few weeks and have been having less pain from my bunions (I was experiencing less pain by switching to barefoot anyway) but I’m concerned that the insole is very rigid and that I’m not strengthening my feet by wearing them. I wore my barefoot sandals at the weekend and my feet felt very loose without the arch support. How do I know if it was good advice to wear insoles or not?

    1. If you have bunion pain then a sole that is less flexible can relieve some of that pain (because the big toe doesn’t have to move as much). So it’s a tricky balance between catering to the bunion and trying to improve it. If it were me I would get into something that is as unsupportive as possible while still not aggravating anything and then at other times work on improving the bunion through other means.

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Picture of Hi. I'm Anya.

Hi. I'm Anya.

I first discovered barefoot shoes after a long history of foot issues. By changing my footwear and strengthening my body I was able to completely transform my life. Anya’s Reviews is my way of sharing with the world that healthy feet are happy feet!

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